The Islam religion is monotheist and was born
in Arabic Peninsula the VII century, by created by the Prophet Mohammed.
Islam means “submission to god”. According to the Koran, this religion is
universal and the practice of the Islam is by free acceptation, there are
The Islamic population is estimated around
a thousand millions people. The main ethnic groups are: Arabs (northern
Africa and Middle East), Turkish, ottomans (some regions of the Old Soviet
Union and Central Asia), Iranians, Afghans, Indo-Muslims (Pakistan, India
and Bangladesh) South of Asia (Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines) and a small
percentage of China. The Islam is the second largest religion in the world
after the Christians.
In Muhammad times, the Arabic peninsula was
inhabited by nomad Bedouins and Arabs. The Arabs’ religion was polytheist
and idolize. Nonetheless there was a old monotheist tradition, which used
to considered there was a supreme god.
It was during the VII and VIII century when
the expansion of this religion took place. Through the next two centuries
were created the theological and legislative aspects of the orthodox Islam.
The theology has nearly the same importance as the legal system.
The Islam in the modern world
After the Middle Ages the deadlock of the
Islamic culture drove to a new tendency o religious reform. These new approaches
were based on social and moral reforms. The first movement was called Wahhabi,
the name comes from its founder Ibn Abd al-Wahhab, (XVIII). It soon became
a fundamentalist movement with ramifications in the whole Muslim world. This
movement wanted to purify the Islam from the non-Islamic influences.
Others Islamic reforms had been influenced
by the occidental ideas. The most influenced figure was the Egyptian
Muhammad Abduh (XIX) who thought that the modern occidental philosophy and
logic would reaffirm the Islamic doctrine instead of breaking it. There
were others philosophers who thought that there could be relation between
the “representative governs” and the Islam. Moreover they believed in the
women emancipation and the science. They warned their society that the Koran
promotes the study of the nature. The Muslims did a great scientific work
and its transmission over Europe, although they stopped it. The Koran give
the same rights to the women, however they have been denied in favour of
Although these movements were plausible for
the Koran, the fundamentalist denied these new ideas and acted as a strong
opposition for several reasons:
1. The reformers were accused to be the
transmission of the occidental culture.
2. They believe that the emancipation of the
women in the occidental societies is responsible of the disintegration
of the Family and it is considered as excessive.
3. Fundamentalist does not believe in the democracy.
They think that the masses have no moral responsibility.
4. One of the most important reasons is: Some
fundamentalist have a high reticence towards the occidental colonialism.
It represents the evil.
The Islamic modern history shows that there
is being creating new politics movements highly tied to the religion.
This religion is always incorporating new members, most of them
from black Africans and also black Americans. This is thanks to the strict
sense of solidarity and its egalitarianism.