- DIDACTIC UNIT LEVEL.
DIDACTIC UNIT PLANNING.
DEVELOPMENT OF ACTIVITIES.
SOCIO – CULTURAL ASPECTS
GENERAL OVERHAUL. “HEALTH”
ASKING AND GIVING INFORMATION ABOUT…….
- DEVELOPMENT OF ACTIVITIES SUCH AS:
INTRODUCTION TO MATHEMATICS
Basic calculations and resolving mathematical problems can be included.
POSSIBLE TASKS TO BE DEVELOPED.
Over the past
few years, intercultural health has become an emerging issue in health policy.
Intercultural health is an approach to improve communication between patients
and providers. This approach incorporates patient's cultural background in
health care; improving intercultural communication strategies to generate a
medical culture of patients. This introduction explores concepts in an
intercultural health approach. Such as cultural diversity and medical systems as
complex models of thoughts and behaviours.
Alarcón M, Ana Vidal , Aldoy Neira Rozas, Jaime, in the Medical Chilean
magazine: Intercultural Health; elements
for the construction of a conceptual base,(September 2.003):
In the last few
decades, terms such as intercultural
health and cross-cultural health
have been used indistinctly when designing a group of actions and policies which
tend to learn and incorporate the culture of the users in daily processes of
health customer service. This cultural topic is far more complex that it may
seem. It implies a biological, cultural and social diversity of human being as
an important factor for health processes. Being respectful to this diversity has
had a long trajectory in countries which have a large number of immigrants.
Furthermore, this diversity has generated a great variety of ethnical and
cultural situations where medical teams have been forced to develop strategies
which help to facilitate the relationship between doctor and patient.
countries have had the necessity of development health processes; such as Chile,
where different historical, socio-political, and epidemiological reasons have
motivated initiatives which tended to avoid that ethnical and cultural identity
of users were a handicap for receiving an adequate health attention.
In this context,
Anthropology as science, contributes to understand and involve culture in health
processes. Moreover, it gives socio anthropological elements which help to
appreciate this health and disease phenomena from a biological dimension. In
actuality, medical pluralism characterizes our contemporary society.
highlights in her analysis about shamanism and primitives ways of cure that:
“Contacts between cultures lead us to a bigger development of cultural aspects.
The human being has several priorities. One of these priorities is to safeguard
life. Fighting against illness and diseases and the interest in good health are
common characteristics since the beginning of times.”
As an example:
Traditional Chinese Medicine relates tradition and culture with nature. The idea
of good health is easily converted in an intercultural, mixed idea,
characterised for its viability. It is similar in the different places of the
world where it is studied and practised.
actuality, “Occidental Science” is working in pro of health, improving
people’s life expectancy. Nevertheless, in some occidental countries, there
are two possible ways of understanding health and illness:
the one hand, there is the conventional occidental medicine, supported by
technological processes and synthetic drugs.
the other hand, there is the natural-traditional medicine, left aside by the
first one. Nowadays it is being developed by naturopathy and natural medicine.
It incorporates these researches made in natural science and includes remedies
using mainly plants.
researching original cultures, which still survive, it is easy to find out that
their idea of health / illness is quite different from ours. These cultures
relate their present with their pass and its tradition. Most of Chilean,
Argentinean and Asiatic tribes believe that health is a global sphere where
humans, social and natural environment, lore and cosmos are interrelated.
Everything that happens to a member of a community is related to the rest of the
health is related to social health (within the tribe). It is thought that their
health is correlated to the health of their surroundings (natural environment).
natural environment is being transformed by human being. In this process, they
can hurt it; therefore, it can get sick. Quality has higher importance that
quantity. There is a great difference over the conception of human being between
these tribes and the occidental culture. Traditionally society and nature at the
same time are thought as an individual. Whereas occidental medicine sees humans
in terms of statistics, sick people are mere figures. Health attention is given
in terms of time and spare room due to overcrowding.
have created intercultural hospitals, it hopes to:
rules and policies in terms of intercultural health and development of new
studies. Integrating Traditional-alternative-complementary medicine with
Academic medicine will lead to a better health.
experiences and knowledge of traditional-alternative-complementary medicine with
academic medicine for a higher quality and life expectancy.
projects and programs whose main objective is to spread results of the
integration of these two main medicines: Natural and Academic medicine. Forming
doctors in intercultural medicine.
policies and strategies for intercultural health.
developing, and spreading results of technological and scientific investigation
in Health and Intercultural field.
implementing botanical gardens, herbariums, bio gardens, etc….
articulating and evaluating Alternative and Complementary medicine with Academic
proposing rules for the application of experiences in intercultural health.
Using resources such as natural medicines-food and its derivative products.
protocols of integration and complementation in intercultural health.
implementing national and international cooperation.
results when using natural products.
Several times, intercultural affairs have been presented as dialogue,
exchange and complementation, which try to articulate the differences. However,
it never works on the motto: unity in diversity. The concept intercultural has
to be revalued and addressed to an historical awareness of people involved in
education and a practice of coexistence, accepting our differences in terms of
ways of think, feeling, dressing, etc…
Being educated in diversity is to lead us to accept diversity as a basic
premise of coexistence. Human being is forced to learn to live in a world of
Intercultural education must generate changes in our actual system, to
balance gender and cultural connections. Teachers are the pillars of these
societies, adult school centres are a place where diversity meets, and teachers
have the responsibility to promote real intercultural exchanges.
This didactic unit intends to work with health from an intercultural
point of view. It is thought that students should have to reach a minimum
vocabulary related to health that will help them to integrate faster in our
society, so this vocabulary should be motivating for this target group.
All our students have a personal way of interact when facing an illness,
personal hygiene, healthy habits, etc. From that point of view, it is easy to
deal with lore and tradition related to health, to work with them about
different systems. Finally, it will help us to teach them how European system
D. Almaguer González deals with traditional medicine, and in his work,
he says that: “there are four main elements in all health-care systems:
specialists, illness classification, diagnosis, and therapeutically tools. The
latest is commonly known as herbarium; it includes not only plants and herbs,
but animals, water, heat, mud, etc. and with that treatment it is possible to
give a complete service to customers”. He also reminds us that “traditional
medicine has been with us for many centuries, It also has limitations and
unhealthy practices; plants and herbs which can be dangerous in inexperienced
hands, so this is why we should clarify our actual situation and be aware that
we should be treated by specialists”.
We intend that our students learn and use the vocabulary related to this
topic. We also aim that our students, after studying this unit, will be able to
use a medical centre and understand different ways of using medicine.
We will deal with health related to:
of the body
associated with illness
and side effects
unit is focus on adult students with intermediate language level according to
the new European system; it can be included in “B2.”
There usually is a mixed group made of different cultures. (It can also
be used with monoculture groups).
The main goal is that students learn different ways of understanding
health according to different ways of life and cultures. We also aim our
students to have a general view of this topic in terms of vocabulary and
values such as respect, tolerance, rights and obligations for native people and
those coming from different cultures (immigrants, ethnic minorities…) in order
to reach a positive cultural enrichment.
of the body.
different drugs and side effects.
diagnostics and test in a medical centre.
different specialist in health system.
pain, sickness, etc…
giving information about personal feelings.
GRAMMAR AND CULTURE.-
Parts of the
related to health
vocabulary related to medicine.
doctors, nurses and their functions at hospital/medical centre in a conversation.
basic questions related to the way someone is feeling.
instructions given by a doctor/nurse/clerk etc…..
practising new vocabulary.
spontaneous grammar structures.
with new words
Verbs - to cure,
cut, fill, add, test, wash, clean, operate on, etc...
Medicine, doctor, specialist, medical centre, nurse, hospital, ambulance,
emergency, appointment, etc...
basic words- wide, narrow, before, after, clear, dark, large, small, short, etc.
on questions such as:
topics are interesting for these students?
could they learn in order to help integration?
have to be learnt?
The main aim is to develop student’s communicative competence. Although
an intercultural perspective cannot be omitted. A task-based approach should be
used in order to develop our students’ knowledge and capacities.
It is necessary to establish the level of each student (initial
evaluation). It will give the starting point. Moreover, it will help to develop
their linguistic and conceptual necessities.
5.-DEVELOPMENT OF ACTIVITIES.-
first activity in this unit should be focus on our students (motivating them).
It will help to check their previous ideas and knowledge. It is also very useful
for these following activities.
activities have been included when developing linguistic contents, attitudes and
intercultural aspects such as:
Communicative activities. - Checking
point of view of students,
positive attitudes towards different cultures. It could be said that it will
help to change cognitive frameworks.
Cooperative activities. - using new knowledge. It is useful as evaluation.
“Solving problems” activities.
- These activities will prepare students for real situations.
have been used at the end of this didactic unit. They will be used as evaluation
material, not only for students, but also for the total teaching-learning
you want to learn more:
down the main ideas that this text suggest to you.-
PARTS OF THE BODY.
PARTS OF OUR EXTREMITIES.
AT THIS DRAWING, WRITE THE NAME OF THE DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE BODY.
PARTS OF THE BODY WITH ACTIONS
DIFFERENT TYPES OF SERVICES RELATED TO HEALTH
DIFFERENT TYPES OF PROFESSIONALS
RELATED TO HEALTH
TYPE OF CHILEAN MEDICINES
THE NAME OF THE FOLLOWING DRAWINGS.-
WORDS AND PICTURES
Observe this picture.-
Where are they talking ?
At the office
At a medical centre
What happens to them?
To whom are they talking?
OBSERVE THESE PICTURES.
FOLLOWING SENTENCES WITH
THE WORDS GIVEN.-
type of documents do you need if you want to go to a medical centre within
if you are an immigrant?
can you go to a medical centre/hospital?
can you get an appointment?
could anyone who has not been legalised in any of the European countries do if
he/she wanted to have an appointment?
for the following directions for use and complete these tasks. Could you
find any side effect?
actuality, there are mainly two health systems around the world:
addition, there are two ways of possible organization:
workers and businesspersons.
Rights of this
health system belong to the person who pay and his/her family.
money depends on your quantity of work; it has nothing to do with the money that
It is a right
that everybody should receive in the same way.
create a national system founded with tax’s money and ensure that all receive
a proper attention.
Focused in all
The money that
every citizen pays is related to his/her income.
LIST ALL TYPES OF HEALTH SYSTEM KNOWN BY YOUR CLASS. EXPLAIN ANY
SIMILARITY OR DIFFERENCE.
THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS IN GROUPS
Immigration, Does it benefit or detriment our health system?
Put the following dialogue in the correct order and practice with your
would like to have some aspirins, please.
you tell me the name?
, sorry, I do not have any left.
happens to you?
have a headache
you have fever ?
I have not.
Read this text and give your opinion.
What is the most typical illness in your country? Are they similar with
the ones of the country where you live now?
talk about this article.-
AT THE FOLLOWING DRAWINGS.- PRACTICE WITH A PARTNER
TALKING IN GROUPS
Groups of three people are going to work in the following task:
Our students will go to a hospital/medical centre and will get bad
service from that hospital. They will want to make a complaint.
- Doctor / patient.
Patients get an
bad service not following rules of this medical centre.
with your partners:
What can we do to feel good?
What are our daily habits?
How can we choose doctors?
What can we do in order to improve our health?
Choose the specialist you think you would need to visit:
for a partner who has chosen the same that you. (example pediatics)
What is the
best food for infants?
What is the
influence of food over children?
How can you
This task requires some preparation from our students; we must provide
them with information.
However, they sometimes will have to do some research. These activities
should be done in groups in order to share experiences and the information
You have been at a casualty department with your son. You have had a bad
service and you want to complain. When they are about to give you the complain
form, they try to convince you and make you have a second thought. How would you
react?. Work with a partner and role this situation.
/ advance students) Given a complaining form, (see index 2) try to fill it in
groups of 2/3 people and send it to the Human Resources Department. You will
have to find the necessary steps if you want to present a good complain. This
situation could be role by some students.
LOOK AT THE FOLLOWING
machine that shows heart rate, breathing, blood pressure, intracranial pressure,
and cerebral perfusion pressure.
A bandage around the head used to keep the wound or incision clean and dry.
A small tube placed into or just on top of the brain through a small hole in the
skull. This will measure the amount of pressure inside the brain (intracranial
Nasogastric Tube (NG):
A tube placed through the nose into the stomach that can be used to suction the
stomach or provide liquid formula directly into the stomach.
A tube inserted through the patient's nose or mouth into the trachea (windpipe)
to help with breathing and suctioning.
EKG Lead Wires:
Wires connected to the chest with small patches that measure the heart rate and
Intravenous Catheter (IV) and Intravenous Fluid: A flexible catheter which allows fluid, nutrients, and medicine to be
given directly into a vein.
A machine used in the Intensive Care Unit to support the patient in their own
breathing or give the patient breaths.
Anti-Embolism Stockings (Frequently call TEDS): Long white stockings used to help prevent the pooling of blood in the
Sequential Compression Stockings (Frequently called
Urinary “Foley” Catheter:
A tube inserted into the bladder to drain and allow for accurate measurement of
TEXT ABOVE AND MAKE SENTENCES WITH THESE NEW WORDS.-
8.-DIDACTIC ORIENTATIONS FOR EVALUATION.-
This project is being carried out with the support of the European Community in the framework of the Socrates programme. The content of this project does not necessarily reflect the position of the European Community, nor does it involve any responsibility on the part of the European Community. For questions and contact:
Latest update of this page: 2005-06-28
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