How to survive








If we take into account that the border of our world is the language, then, it is clear that the acquisition of a language means the broadening of the world of the subject who learns a new language. More precisely, the acquisition of a language and the gradual acquisition of the linguistic skills that are required for the fulfillment initially of the everyday needs and gradually of the integration in a society and the acquisition of its social and cultural norms are of great importance nowadays that the old frontiers tend to disappear and the ethnic identity has lost its omnipotence and it is not enough any more in order that a person would feel secure and protected.


In other words, the language is the vehicle by which the gap between the immigrants or the ethnic minorities and the people of the host country will be bridged through the mutual interaction and the resulting mutual understanding.

In order that the above objective would be achieved, educators must have a clear view of

bulletthe objectives of the migration
bulletthe knowledge of the language, morals and religion
bulletthe historical past, the psychological identity of the group, specific attitudes in relation to people and world


The knowledge of the above factors will help the educator to approach the trainee in the appropriate way and thus create such a climate in the class which will facilitate the self-realisation and subsequently the self-acceptance of the trainee as well as his/her integration into the microcosm of the class which in its turn will prepare the subject in question for his/her integration into the social and national macrocosm.

In order that this would be achieved the educator must have a deep and unprejudiced knowledge of the background of the trainee and thus become the catalyst of a future successful integration and peaceful coexistence of self-realised, different but equal subjects.


Given that the above factors are well considered and realized by the educators of immigrants and ethnic minorities have to pass to the second step which is the exploitation of the cultural heritage of the trainees, but not only for the realization of the didactic procedure. What is a provocation for each sole educator is to bring these elements in the surface of attention and interest, make the trainees feel comfortable with themselves and thus by possessing both traditions it is sure that we have created the conditions for further creative cooperation and peaceful interaction.

By having achieved the above goals we have put the keystone for the creation of a multicultural society, where the sole immigrant or member of an ethnic minority will find the way for the fulfillment of his/her inner self by the exploitation, transformation and recreation of the bicultural situation that he/she experiences.

In this way the assets that each immigrant surely carries will be exploited and each of them will acquire the place that he/she deserves and not a marginal one as it is the case today in all our European civilized countries in a society that appreciates the personal educational and cultural background and grants to its members their deserved place. 

On the whole through teaching immigrants we try to set a model not only of acquisition of the language but also a model of integration through the acquisition of the language in a given society while trying to comfort the crisis that such a change as immigration causes, which might not be an exaggeration to say that poses fear for life or death sentimentally, socially, culturally and nationally.



Baker C., Εισαγωγή στη Διγλωσσία και τη Δίγλωσση Εκπαίδευση, Αθήνα 2001

Βaynham M., Πρακτικές Γραμματισμού, Αραποπούλου Μ. (μετ), Μεταίχμιο

Cummins, J., and Swain, M., Bilingualism in Education, Longman 1986

Farrel P., Multicultural Education, 1990

Freeman Rebbecca D., Bilingual Education AND Social Change, 1998

Genesee , Fred (ed), Educating second language children: the whole child, the whole curriculum, the whole community, Cambridge University Press, 1994

Halliday M.A.K., Language, Social Life and Critical Thought, 1995

International Symposium (Athens, April 6-9, 1995), Education of Gypsies, Development of Teaching Material, Athens 1997

Langue, Langues en Europe, Athens 2001

Rigas A., Education of Ethnic Minorities: Unity and Diversity, Athens 1999

Robertson A.Ee. & Bloome D., Οι μαθητές/τριες ως Ερευνητές/τριες, Κάραλη Μ. (μετ), Μεταίχμιο

Skutnabb-Kangas and J. Cummins (ed), Minority Education: from shame to struggle, 1988

Van Herreweghe, M.L., Education and the respect of Each’s Person’s Identity and Lived Values, Belgium

Walterova E., Consideration of a Concept of Intercaltural Education in Europe , Czech Republic

Γκότοβος Α., Η Κοινωνική Κατασκευή Μειονοτικής Ταυτότητας, 2001

Δενδρινού Β., Η Διδασκαλία της Μητρικής Γλώσσας,

Ευσταθιάδης Σ. (επ.υπ), Ενδιάμεσο Επίπεδο για τα Νέα Ελληνικά, ΥΠΕΠΘ-Κέντρο Ελληνικής Γλώσσας, Θεσσαλονίκη 2001

Eυσταθιάδης Σ., Αντωνοπούλου Ν., Μανάβη Δ., Βογιατζίδου Σ., Πιστοποίηση επάρκειας της ελληνομάθειας, ΥΠΕΠΘ-Κέντρο Ελληνικής Γλώσσας, Θεσσαλονίκη 2001

Κάτσιου-Ζαφρανά, Η Μάθηση στους Ενήλικες

Λύκου Χ., Η Συστημική Λειτουργική Γραμματική του Μ.Α.Κ. Halliday, Kέντρο Ελληνικής Γλώσσας Θεσσαλονίκης

Σκούρτου Ε., Τετράδια Εργασίας Νάξου, Διγλωσσία, Πανεπιστήμιο Αιγαίο

Toκαλίδου Β., Εισαγωγή στη Διδακτική των ζωντανών Γλωσσών, Αθήνα



General educational objective

The student must be able to function effectively as far as language is concerned in situations of everyday life and cope with the needs of everyday life as well.

Τhe students must show that they can engage successfully in communicative activities. So using formal or informal language will depend on the communicative situation.

If needed the student must use humor, sentimental or allusive speech.

Students have to produce oral or written discourse relevant to various subjects expressing opinions and developing arguments about a subject.


Special educational objectives


Understanding of oral speech


bulletUnderstanding of phrases and vocabulary of the highest frequency relating to sectors of direct personal experience (e.g. family, market, work, entertainment, pursuits)
bulletUnderstanding of public announcements in bus and train stations, shops, telephone information, news broadcast, weather broadcast, instructions given by civil servants (police, port office etc)
bulletAbility to understand native speakers talking and giving information about subjects of everyday life
bulletUnderstanding of simple dialogues on the phone
bulletΑbility to intervene in a personal discussion of everyday life transferrinf experience, feelings and thoughts


Understanding of written texts


bulletCapability of decoding and exploiting the information of various written texts especially those relevant to transport (arrivals, departures, prices, discounts, offers etc). But also announcements, classified announcements, posters, advertisements, advertising handouts, guides, maps, signs, price-lists, directories, time-tables, bills, tickets, radio-television programs, application forms and other official documents  


Production of written text


bulletCapability of filling in application forms, writing down a name, a simple message, an address, a phone number


Production of oral speech


bulletDelivery of short address
bulletAsking for basic information
bulletAbility of communicating for everyday purposes (giving details for time, place, manner, reason)
bulletAbility of contacting the various services and asking to be served
bulletAbility of expressing preferences, sentiments, wishes, intentions
bulletAbility of transcending the difficulties concerning communication
bulletAbility to understand and follow instructions given by somebody else
bulletAbility to conceive the general meaning or the main arguments as regards oral speech and its communicative value



Communicative objectives

·       The main communicative objective is the ability of the student to cope with the situations one has to face in everyday life


Social contacts


Ability to develop and maintain social contacts


Acts of speech


Ability to form questions


Problems of communication


Ability to clarify and ask for clarification


Situations of communication


  1. Public services
  1. Civil services
  1. Transport/travel
  1. Sojourn
  1. Nutrition
  1. Visits to public places
  1. Health/ Medicare
  1. Purchase of consumer goods
  1. Social contacts
  1. Personal life
  1. Professional life
  1. Entertainment/ Free time


Sociolinguistic objectives


The knowledge of the social and cultural elements of the country whose language one is about to learn is essential and contributes to the right use of the language and the efficient handling of each situation in question. Without the knowledge of this kind every linguistic attempt is about to fail and not achieve its initial objective.





The material which will be used for the teaching of this unit will be material of the everyday life.

The way in which this material will be used will simulate more or less to the actual situations of everyday life.

Role playing might be a quite productive and challenging way of approaching this unit.

More precisely the whole sequence of the unit will demand the active participation of the student who will have to acquire knowledge linguistic, social and cultural at the same time and be able to use it in real life.




The information that can be given to the students regards internet addresses, where they

can find information for the main integration problems and the services that exist in the country especially for immigrants.




The aim is to assess how the student uses language in socially meaningful ways rather than what they know about the language. The student’s aim is not to talk about the target language nor to analyse it, but to talk and write the language and function as mediator transferring messages from their own language to the target language.


At the same time the teacher can evaluate himself/herself and his/her methodology by the students’ acquired ability to cope effectively with their tasks.









Possession of a basic understanding of the messages one receives in everyday life




Ability to draw information out of simple written texts of everyday life




Ability to produce written texts to cope with everyday needs




Ability to function in the everyday relations effectively




Ability to overcome problems in communication




Ability to handle more demanding situations and problems




Ability to express or justify an opinion, thought, wish, intention




Ability to ask for specifications, clarifications, explanations




Ability to analyse social issues (opinions about our society, education, politics, social problems etc)




Ability to use the language under conditions that refer to holidays, travels etc







Special educational objectives


Understanding of oral speech

bulletUnderstanding of all kind of everyday communication in different places and from different sources.


Proposed tasks

        1. Acquaintance with the basic vocabulary relating to all the main sectors of private

            and public life

        2. Selection of public announcements and posing of questions asking information

            enabling thus the student to cope with every simple everyday task


Understanding of written speech

bulletUnderstanding of any kind of everyday written speech from the simplest to more complicated and thus enabling the student to fulfill every need he/she might have



Proposed tasks

1.      Selection of written documents of everyday life and acquaintance with their structure and vocabulary so as the student to be able to function independently as far as everyday needs are concerned  


Production of written speech

bulletAcquaintance with the vocabulary that recurs in official papers
bulletAbility to cope with the simple demands and questions the communication with the civil services poses to a citizen


Proposed tasks

1. Exercise of filling in application forms, numbers, addresses etc


Production of oral speech

bulletAbility to deliver short questions asking for information relating to everyday life


Proposed tasks

        1. The student must be asked to participate in dialogues asking and answering to


        2. The student must be asked to intervene without interrupting his/her interlocutors

            using formal or informal language depending on the communicative situation


Communicative objectives


Social contacts


·        Ability to ask for information about persons and things, time, direction, way, cost etc.


Acts of speech


·        At this stage the student must become familiar with the construction of simple questions, which will enable him/her to ask for help, permission, advice etc.


Problems of communication


·        Ability to ask for clarification or just maintain a dialogue in order to receive the information needed.


Situations of communication


1.  Public services


    bulletPost office: ability to buy stamps, send and receive parcels letters etc
    bulletTelecommunications: ability to use the various services of Telecommunication, the card-phones, the phone-cards.
    bulletInformation office: ability to ask for information about everything that is of interest.


            2. Civil services


·        Ability to ask the civil servants for basic information.

·        Ability to answer questions concerning elements of his personal identity.

·        Ability to fill in application forms or other documents.

·        Ability to sign.


            3. Transport/travel


·        With public means of transport:

Ability to ask for information about transportation (means, duration of the journey, cost, prices) 


bulletWith private means:

Ability to rent a car and cope with situations that might result (accident)

Ability to travel without having or causing problems.


            4. Sojourn


bulletAbility to secure the kind of sojourn one wants.
bulletAbility to cover all the needs that result and cope with the everyday problems.


            5. Nutrition


bulletAbility to secure the kind of nutrition one wants by exploiting the variety that is at one’s disposal.


            6. Visits to public places


bulletAbility to know what is going on and where.
bulletAbility to book a place, buy a ticket etc.


7.      Health/ Medicare




bulletAbility to find the emergency hospitals
bulletAbility to arrange an appointment with a doctor
bulletAbility to explain his/her problem and understand the doctor’s instructions




bulletAbility to buy the medicines needed and be able to ask about the way of consummation


8.      Purchase of consumer goods


bulletAbility to choose the product that serves his/her needs
bulletAbility to ask for the appropriate product
bulletAbility to bargain
bulletAbility to complain about the bad quality of a product


9.      Social contacts


bulletAbility to exchange information about personal life, living conditions, profession, education, leisure, travels, monuments, consumer goods, prices, social relation, weather.
bulletAbility to interact with native speakers about any subject.


10.  Personal life


·        Ability to describe his/her familial situation


11.  Professional life


bulletAbility to obtain working license


bulletAbility to read the classified advertisements and decide which suits them
bulletAbility to lay claim to a job by applying, going to an interview
bulletKnowledge of the social benefits


12.  Entertainment/ Free time


·        Ability to look for the preferable kind of entertainment in magazines, newspapers, etc

·        Ability to ask for information relevant to the desired entertainment, book a place etc


Proposed tasks


The fact that the above areas refer to everyday life oblige the teacher to use real and up to date material trying to familiarize the student with every single one of the above situations and thus further enable him/her to cope with every day’s situations.


Sociolinguistic objectives

Through the application of the above exercises the student will acquire all the relevant social and cultural information which is needed for the efficient coping with another country’s reality




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