Didactic values (attitudes)
The aims, objectives and content of (self) training of the foreign language are closely connected with the question of linguistic didactics: how and what methods of teaching-learning should be chosen in order to achieve good quality of the knowledge. Various methods of teaching-learning can be applied when striving for the learning aims and maturing the personality -creative, active, communicative, collaborative, helpful and responsible. The teacher is free to chose the methods that would stimulate a studentís self- dependence, his creative powers, critical thinking, his sociality and ability to put his knowledge into practice , i.e. into linguistic activity. When organizing the teaching process a teacher should observe the main didactic values.
1. Communication value.
The language teaching-learning is one of the principles of communication and almost all the time is devoted to a sensitive individual study and group activity. Communicative teaching-learning prompts creation of the texts taking into account the aim of speaking and writing, an addressee , the way of communication and the content of information. So the forms of linguistic expression is being learnt together with its function, contrary to a former prevalent opinion that a form must be in the first place.
2. Interpretation value
Interpretation stimulates pupilĎs critical thinking, awakens his activeness and changes monological ( reproductive) process of learning into dialogic , which is characteristic to modern didactics. Teaching- learning process is an active studentís activity organized by a teacher. A student is the main subject of teaching-learning process. A student is suggested to clear up, to discover, to evaluate and create, to discuss defending his own point of view, etc.
3. Individualization value.
The organizing the teaching-learning process and guiding the studentís linguistic activity, especially great attention is paid to individual psychological peculiarities (attention, emotions, thinking, motivation, apprehension) of his learning style. A teacher helps his student to perceive various learning- teaching methods, to chose the most suitable methods to a student . A teacher individualizes and concretizes the teaching material , plans it, taking into account individual experience of studentís life.
4. Collaboration value.
Language learning is perceived as a social activity. Studentís study together and they learn from each other , Exchange information , opinions, experience and they discuss. When speaking and listening , carrying out and creating tasks studentís perceive that studying in a group (together) is very useful for e ach of them personally.
Time of studies is used for individual and group activities which stimulate the pupilĎs active self-expressing and collaboration when using the language. Intensive work in pairs and in small groups is carried out. Learning gains the features of natural association and collaboration. The teacher is striving for the unity of the teaching aim (language as a means of communication ) and the means of seeking the aim ( linguistic activity).
5. Integration value.
5.1. Language learning and personality maturing.
The content of language teaching- learning , based humanistic values , the properly organized training process- all this matures studentís personality. On the other hand, a student as a fully Ė entitled participant of the training process, makes and influence on the content of language training and on teaching-learning process.
5.2. Connection between the target language and a studentís native language. In the learning a great attention is paid to interaction of languages and to the studentís native language. Deliberate comparing of the two languages helps to create the system of mistake prevention , enables to recognize resemblances and differences, helps to cognize those languages better. ThatĎs why training process must foresee the modes ( ways) how to achieve the correctness and purity of all the languages taught.
5.3. Connection with other subjects. Connection of language teaching with other disciplines is predetermined by the aims of the state language learning: learn to communicate in a country in various situations of personal and public life. ThatĎs why it is very important to study other subjects (history , geography, technologies, arts, etc.) in foreign language , when learning the state language, the integration of the training content and abilities in different subjects is necessary. It is extremely important to make use of the integration between foreign language and the native language and literature, teachers must help their studentís to adopt foreign culture as the harmonious totality.
Teachers should look for natural possibilities of integration in the training process. The concepts, terms of the other subjects should be used precisely, correctly and purposively. The content of the subjects should be presented visually and significantly. Studentís should keep their attention to the word meaning and expression during foreign language lessons end through all the teaching-learning process.
5.4. Connection between foreign language and literature.
For integration of the training content the language and literature, as an art of word, are very important subjects. Reading and analyzing fiction is nor a separated aim or objective of the language learning, i.e. studentís are not being prepared for this specially, but the skills, that are gained during the lessons of the language and literature, will be easily applied in reading fiction. Besides, reading of fiction makes the learning process more attractive, and learning poems by heart develops pronunciation, memory, distinctness and suggestiveness of speech , enriches studentís literary and cultural competence, etc. The possibilities of the use of fiction depend on the training level and on the aims of the lesson and theme.
6. Intuition and consciousness.
It is very important to maintain the proper relationship between language understanding (intuition) and use of the language (knowledge). When teaching a foreign language it is very important to organize the training process in the form of games, performances, dramatizations, trips, etc. This stimulates studentís wish and his need to speak and at the same time it forms the linguistic competence; expands the variety of linguistic means.
7. Learning to learn.
Learning to learn is very important for a student who wants to gain the communicative competence. Studentís must perceive their communicative needs, they must understand the aim of learning process studentís should be able to decompose the task into smaller parts, they should understand what lexical , grammatical and phonetic mistakes wouldnĎt decrease their communicative competence; Studentís must know, how to find the necessary information and evaluate it; they should try various ways of memorizing the words and chose the most modes; they should master various compensation strategies, which helps to understand the reading and listening the texts; the pupils should also learn from the experience of their own and other studentís.
It is greatly important for a student to understand that the evaluation of the knowledge and abilities demonstrates the achievements of learning and makes a student responsible for his learning results.
The didactic items
The aims of teaching and its content are closely related with the matters of the linguistic didactics: in what way and witch teaching methods as stimulants for learning the language should be chosen. Different teaching methods might be put into practice so that every student could do all his best and thus attain the teaching aims.
Recently in many countries of the world foreign languages are learned most effectively by applying the methods and principles of communicative teaching. Such teaching integrates the most positive features of other methods, allowing to avoid interference, helping to grasp and memorize the material, to develop skills in the productive language, and, finally, stimulating the transposition.
The teaching process as well as the presentation of the didactic material should involve inductive methods, witch will induce the studentís activity, train his thinking as a result the traditional monolingual teaching process being brought nearer the dialogical one, peculiar to modern didactics.
The teaching process is a live studentís activity organized by the teacher. A student is the main subject in the teaching process, an equal partner , an interlocutor; therefore, while presenting the material and guiding the studentís linguistic activity much attention should be paid to his individual characteristics Ė psychological, age and national.
The time for learning is distributed individually, taking into consideration the activity of each student and the whole group in this way stimulating the students for an active spoken cooperation.
An intensive pair work in small groups at the same time is carried out, thus eliminating monotony and mechanical communication.
Teaching and learning should approach the natural communicative situations in order to create a unity between the goals of learning ( language as a means of communication) and the means of achieving those goals (linguistic activity), so that the students were motivated to use language both at school and elsewhere .
From the point of view of the pedagogical psychology the communicative teaching should create an atmosphere of mutual confidence between the teaching process and the subjects involved in that process (students and teachers), as a consequence a student could feel safe, could be himself, could not fear to express his point of view. Such psychological comfort during the lesson should strengthen the motivation for learning language. Due to the communicative method the fear to be mistaken disappears just (of making errors) because the communicative content becomes the priority. Mistakes are no longer treated as an evil, but they are looked upon as an inevitable learning process instead, as a stimulus contributing much in planning the teaching process in individual and group training.
Communicative teaching and learning the foreign language stimulate the production of a coherent text.
The content of the coherent speech is determined by a communicative situation, a text , as well as communicative intentions. The form is learned alongside with its function. The situation when forms and paradigms had to be learned before syntagmas and the usage of forms in separate sentences excluding the confect no longer exists. The comprehension of the parts of speech and the function of words alters as well; words and their forms are treated not only as elements of semantic expression in a sentence but as the copulas forming forming characteristic of pronouns , the repeating words and those having the common roof (the so called textual synonyms, antonyms etc.)
Linqiustic affirmations in the text ( even implicit ones known only to the author of the text and the teacher ) can be implied in oral and in written speech . The training is organized in accordance with the rules of the text compilation when the product of of a coherent speech Ė the type of the text its dominant, the linking means of a sentence are anticipated beforehand, that is when you know what and how you will speak and write.
The practical employment of all the rules of functional grammar and linquistics of the text change , in the main, the traditional presentation of the material and the aim of teaching and learning: one studies not a system of a language with the components of speech but is involved in a spoken activity when applying a communicative method of teaching and learning is recommended to take into account the interaction of languages , the native language of a student.
A conscious comparison of the studentís native and the target languages helps to create a preventive system in avoiding mistakes, the inference, provides conditions for a successful revelation of the similarities and differences between Lithuanian and the native language, to have the way for a better comprehension.
The language matters are usually learned by revising and supplementing the acquired knowledge with the continuous lexical, phonetical and pronounciation items; the main body of semantics and the ways of its expression being constantly consolidated enriched and developed until it becomes the ownership of the studentís language.
Grammar, lexical models (agreement, governing, formation), orthography and punctuation should be learned complexly. A rather important methodological problem is the presentation of the text both in a textbook and during the lesson , also the types of reading.
The main functions of the text are to convey information and submit the colloguial material as a base of communicative skills and ability formation . The manner of presenting the text would depend on the aim of its application and the type of reading.
Four types of reading can be distinguished review- when a reader familiarizes with the contect of the text, evaluates its topicality; cognitive-when a reader tries to grasp the essence without absorbing and striving to remember; detailed-when there is a need to grasp the details, memorize the information ; selective Ėwhen a reader picks out the information that interests him.
The concordance of all these types could call forth one of the main aims in language teaching- the training of a reader.
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Latest update of this page: 2005-06-28
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