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LOCATION: Slovakia emanated from the partition of Czechoslovakian confederacy into two independent states, Slovakia and Czech. Slovakia occupies the territory of the historical Slovakia. Slovakia borders on the west on Czech, on the south on Poland, on the east on Ukraine and on the southwest on Austria.

CAPITAL: Bratislava

Language: Slovak language is a western Slav language which is closely related with the Czech, the Polish and the Soravian of Eastern Germany. It is spoken in Slovakia, where it is the official language. The Slovak uses the Latin alphabet. There are three big Slovakian groups of dialects: the eastern, the central and the western. The eastern and western groups are related between them more than the central dialects, which have common elements with the southern Slav. The eastern dialects have some similarities with the Polish, such as the loss of long vowels, while the western dialects of Slovakia are related with the Moravian dialects of Czech language. Almost all the dialects of Slovakia and Czech are mutually understandable because there are not big linguistic differences between them. Generally the Slovakian is more conservative than the Czech which has undergone important changes from the 14th century.


Geography: The area of the country is 49.039 sq km.

Population: In 1990 Slovakia had 5.287.080 inhabitants.

History: Slovakians, Slavic tribes, succeeded Celts and other tribes. They settled on their territory from the 4th century. From the 9th century these Celts contributed to the creation of the brilliant civilization of Big Moravia. They were initiated into the Christianism by the missionaries from Thessalonica, the brothers Cyrilos and Methodios, who established a diocese there. The Hungarian conquest in the beginning of the 11th century separated them from Czechs for several centuries. At the end of the 15th century and in the beginning of the 16th century intense social struggle broke out. After the Hungarian defeat and the ottoman invasion, Hungary of Hapsburgs had in its possession only Slovakia, where it was located the new capital, Bratislava. The country suffered the Turkish raids and participated energetically in the revolt against the Austrians. After the reorganization of the Hungarian kingdom (1699), Slovakia had a period of peace in the 18th century. When the revolution of 1848 brought about the political autonomy of Budapest, the Slovakian national assembly demanded political and linguistic autonomy within Hungary. The Hungarians tried to wipe out this national minority. A regime of terror and corruption prevailed in Slovakia. A lot of Slovakians were forced to immigrate to the United States. The rest were united around the Slovakian popular party, separatist and with strong religious profile. When the Austro-hungry collapsed a national Slovakian Council unified Slovakia with the Chechens countries in a united Czechoslovakia (1918) within the borders of which the relations between the Czechs and the Slovakians were not ideal.

Under the threat of the Hungarian claims Slovakia was forced to accept the German-Italian arbitration of 1938, which detached from it regions in which the majority of the inhabitants were Hungarians. Under the threat of a complete annexation to Hungary Slovakia remained neutral. The new regime was authoritarian and nationalistic, but it was backed by the church and it was faced positively in the beginning.

However, the increasing pressure by Germany in connection with the symbolic Slovakian declaration of war against the Soviet Union in 1941 provoked the reaction of the Russian party in Slovakia. In 1943 a national Slovakian Council was formed with the participation of communists and non-communists. The Slovakian national revolution broke out in 1944. German forces invaded and suppressed the revolution. The struggle was continued by groups of partisans. The liberation of the country brought about the reunification of Czechoslovakia. Progressively Slovakia lost its autonomy, but in 1967 "the spring of Prague" marked the confederation. From this point on, in parallel with the confederate government, two governments existed, one Czech and one Slovakian. After the collapse of the communism the Slovakians claimed the secession from Czechoslovakia, which became reality in 1993, exactly 74 years after the formation of Czechoslovakia.

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Latest update of this page: 2005-06-28 
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