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LOCATION: Estonia is 45.100sq km big. On the north it borders on the gulf of Finland, on the east on Russia, on the south on Leetonia and on the west on Baltic sea.


LANGUAGE: The Estonian language is member of the phino-hungarian branch of the Uralian linguistic family. The language is divided into two central dialects, the north and south. The north, the dialect of Talin is the base of the Estonian literature. Belonging to the phino-baltic branch of the phino-hungarian languages, the Estonian has close relation with the Phinniki, Votiki, Levonian, Ingriki and the Carelian language. From the point of view of its structure the language is chracterised by the unusual contradistinction of three degrees of long consonants and vowels. The Estonian has the characteristic phino-baltic escalation of consonants but it has lost the characteristic of the harmony of the vowels. The basic way of definition of the grammatical categories is made by the addition of prefixes in the theme of the words.


POPULATION: 1.500.000 inhabitants in 1990.

HISTORY: The Estonians have fino-hungarian origin. They were united against the successive invaders, Vikings (9th-10th c.) and Russians (11th-12th c.) before they found themselves confronting the Germans. After the division of their country between the Danish and Germans they subjugated to the later. The breaking down of the Livonian confederation brought about the subjugation of the north part of the country to Sweden and of the south to Poland. After the first Polish-Swedish war the Swedes acquired the whole Estonia.

The Swedish period ended with the surrender of Estonia to Russia. When a national revolution has begun, the Russians suppressed it very cruelly. In 1917 the country revolted and organized to an autonomous state. In 1918 Lenin surrendered Estonia to the Germans who had conquered it. The collapse of Germany in November of the same year made the Estonian independence reality, which was not validated by the Soviets. In 1918 the Red Cross invaded in Estonia. The army of the free Estonians was supported by the Philanders and they achieved to repel the Russians and the German army. In 1920 the Russians renounced their claims to Estonia and the country was recognized by the big forces.

Estonia was conquered by the soviet army in 1940 and was incorporated in the Soviet Union. The country was suffered the attack of the Germans in 1941. After the recapture by the soviets, Estonia became the fifteenth democracy of the union of the soviet socialistic democracies. Like the other Baltic democracies Estonia was one of the first confederate democracies which proclaimed its independence in 1990.

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Latest update of this page: 2005-06-28 
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