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LOCATION: A country of the southeastern Europe occupies the eastern part of the Balkan Peninsula.


LANGUAGE: The Bulgarian language is the language of the Indo-European Slavs of Balkan Peninsula, as it was assimilated by a tribe of Mongolian origin, when in the 6th or 7th century the two peoples met each other. The biological mingling transformed the Bulgarians into Slavophones. From their Turk-tataric language remained a few words, mainly names. As a Slav language, then, the Bulgarian is a language which belongs to the group of the southern Slav languages. These are the Bulgarian, the Serbo-Croatian and the Slovenian. The history of the Bulgarian language is divided into three periods:

  1. The ancient Bulgarian (7th-11th ac), which is at the same time the older written Slav language.
  2. The medieval Bulgarian language (12th-15th ac). It is distinguished by the impact of the popular spoken language on the written language with elements such as progressive simplification of the declension, transformation in the phonetic and the syntax, lexical innovations.
  3. The new Bulgarian (15th century until today). It is divided into the common Bulgarian and the dialects. Another division is into eastern and the western.
  4. The main characteristics of the spoken Bulgarian which differentiate it from the rest Slav languages are:

    bulletThe declension of the name, which the Slav languages inherited from the Indo-European was missed and it was substituted by analytical syntax with prepositions.
    bulletThe use of phrases with infinitive was also missed and it was substituted by expressions with da (and, that).
    bulletThe Bulgarian is the only Slav language which uses article, which is added as ending.
    bulletThe Bulgarian language has free and dynamic intonation, like the Greek, but it is not marked in the written form.
    bulletThe Bulgarian alphabet was invented in the 9th century by the missionaries Cyril and Methodios.
    bulletIn 1945 it took place in Bulgaria the orthographic reform and now it has 30 letters.
    bulletThe Bulgarian language was affected by the Rumanian, Turkish and mainly the Greek language.

    RELIGION: There is no official religion.

    COIN: Leva

    POPULATION: It had 8.452.000 inhabitants in 1994.

    HISTORY: The present Bulgarian territories were inhabited from the ancient times. The earliest traces of human life in the Bulgarian territories are dated back in 120.000-42.000ac. In the end of the era of copper the Thracian community is created, the formation of which ends in the beginning of the era of iron. The Thracians occupy the central, east and southeast regions of the Balkan Peninsula. In the 1st century the Balkan territories were conquered by the Romans and they were transformed into a Roman province, which after the separation of the Roman Empire (395) was within the borders of Byzantium. In the first half of the 7th century south of Danube moved Slavonic tribes. At about 660 Probulgarians were established on the north of the Danube delta, tribes of touranic origin. In 680 they invaded to the Bulgarian possessions of the Roman Empire. In 681 with the unification of the seven Slavonic tribes they established the Bulgarian state, which was extended on the east until the Black Sea, on the west until the river Timok, on the south until the Aimo and on the north until the Carpathia and Dneipero. The new established state acquired international status. After the successful wars against the western Europeans the borders of Bulgaria were extended on the northwest. Christianism became the official religion in 864. The process of the formation of the Bulgarian nationality is now complete. Bulgaria is now one of the most developed European states of that age. In the middle of the 9th century the Byzantine monks, Cyril and Methodios created the Slavonic script and literature, which through their pupils was introduced into Bulgaria. At that time there was a considerable acme of the Bulgarian civilization. Due to a series of victories at the end of the 9th and in the beginning of the 10th century the Bulgarian state extended almost the whole Balkan Peninsula from the Black Sea until the Adriatic and from the Isthmus of Corinth until the Carpathia. After this acme Bulgaria started loosing its territories beyond Danube. In 971 Byzantium conquered the northeast territories, which were added to Byzantium again in 976. During the period 997-1014 the Bulgarian state had significant territorial successes. But after the battle at Beles (1014) Byzantium acquired the Bulgarian territories. After the successful revolt against the Byzantine occupation Bulgaria was restored and extended territorially. Later Bulgaria suffered by the conquest of Tatars but it was restored again and acquired power and prosperity. From 1311 begun the conquest of Bulgaria by the Ottomans and in 1396 it was under the Turks. The servitude to the Turks lasted for five centuries. The struggle for freedom begun in the beginning of the 15th century. In the 18th-19th century the liberating war was enforced and it was developed in three directions. The Bulgarians were struggling for national education, religious independence and political liberation. The cruel reaction of the Ottoman Empire aroused the reaction of the international community but the Bulgarian cause was not solved with peaceful means. In 1877 Russia began a war against Turkey. This war brought the liberation of Bulgaria. In 1908 the independence of Bulgaria was renounced. Bulgaria became an independent state. The Bulgarian civil class tried to achieve complete national unification via the Balkan war (1912-1913), but due to the differences between the allied forces Bulgaria, Greece and Serbia for the division of the liberated territories the war within the alliance broke out, which ended with the first national destruction of Bulgaria.

    Bulgaria took part in the 1st world war in alliance with the central powers. The Russian Revolution promoted the revolutionary movement. In the middle of September 1918 the revolt of Bulgaria is realized, with which Bulgaria was proclaimed democracy. The years that followed were years of intense struggles within the borders of Bulgaria for the establishment of a law and order. During the outbreak of the 2nd world war Bulgaria remained neutral until the 1st of March 1941. When Germany assailed against the Soviet Union, Bulgaria adopted the armed antifascist struggle in 1941.

    At the end of August 1944 parts of the Soviet armies reached at the north borders of Bulgaria. And since the Bulgarian government did not interrupt its alliance with Germany in the 5th of September 1944 the Soviet Union proclaimed the war against the fascist Bulgaria. In 1944 the Bulgarian communist party under the decisive Russian supervision and help initiated general popular revolution, which overthrew the fascist dictatorship. After that the establishment of the socialism in Bulgaria was well under the way. In 1944 Bulgaria signed truce with the countries of the forces which were against Hitler.

    In the recent years Bulgaria followed the same course of development as the rest countries of the former Eastern Bloc.

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